Is to gather the existing aggregate da
ta and track that information back to the actual incident
reports in which the assault was reported. The in
cident reports will be analyzed to determine:
Whether the actions were properly coded as
an assault (consis
tent with the FBI
reporting standards);
The nature of the assaul
t (weapon vs. non weapon);
The extent of injury to the Ranger;
The type of perpetrator if possible;
The facts surroundi
ng the assault;
The involvement of alcohol use on th
e part of the perpetrator; and,
The actual location of the assault.
The initial outcome of this project is the co
mpletion of the analysis
of the assaults with
an eye toward training and policy recomme
ndations aimed at improved employee safety
(see objectives listed below).
Research Objectives:
1. Verify (for accuracy and reliabilit
y) and quantify the IACP’s findings.
2. Seek NPS procedures which might provide inaccu
rate statistics and therefore mis-represent the
3. Prepare statistical and narra
tive analysis of the cases.
4. Provide written reports to the NPS which documents the above findings.
5. Develop an investigative plan and budget to dete
rmine causation and recommendations for
resolution of the assault problem. This pl
an may recommend such techniques as:
a. Interview involved rangers to determine th
eir mental and physic
al preparedness, and
their actual and perceive
d operating conditions.
b. Interview those persons arrest
ed or convicted of assaults
to determine the conditions
they perceived which gave
rise to the assault.
c. Seek relevant differences
between NPS training, prepared
ness, operating environment,
program supervision or other conditions and
those of other agencies. These differences
may account for the higher NPS assault rate.
d. Survey representative portion of NPS enfor
cement rangers and /or supervisors, and/or
managers, etc., as necessary to determine
the distribution of the causative condition.
Statement of Work:
The purpose of this agreement was to fo
ster a cooperative working relationship
between faculty and staff at Northern Arizona
University (NAU) and
National Park Service
(NPS) staffs to conduct a statis
tical evaluation and causality st
udy of the assault rate on NPS
rangers, to recommend required safety change
s, and to report to
the agency. Several
additional informal communications
with agency stakeholders, such as articles in professional
magazines, will be required in addition to the fi
nal investigators report and recommendations.
The initial planning work began in early 2002
and has continued to the present. This
agreement served to identify the specific res
ponsibilities of each pa
rtner (including but not
limited to plan development, approach and
methods, evaluation and financial obligations)
from inception of the agreement until the study
has been conducted and evaluated and a final
report of recommendations is written.
The role of the principal inve
stigator involved oversight of
all aspects of the statistical
evaluation, problem identification,
and plan development. The prin
cipal investigator was also
responsible for completion of required reports
and publications. Finally, the principal
investigator was responsible for maintaining
security over any sensitive data including
personnel identifiers and work products which ha
ve not been approved for distribution by the
National Park Service.
The principal investigator coordinated a
ll conference calls and on-site meetings,
informing participants of agendas, times a
nd locations, and maintaining open communications
with members of the development and instructor teams.
Co-principal investigator Dodd, also a N
PS commissioned employee, facilitate records
retrieval from the various NPS sites. He also
served as a subject matter expert on NPS records
systems, and access and coding procedures, as
and assisted in design of the subsequent
research project and budget to ensure NPS ope
rating conditions were accurately represented.
Finally, he served as data analyst reviewer of the records

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